mortality and cancer morbidity of production workers in the uk flexible polyurethane foam industry: updated findings, 1958–98
Malignant and non-malignantmalignant)
And exposure to the two ocyan salts.
Methods: mortality rate (1958–98)
Incidence of cancer (1971–94)
The experience of 8288 male and female employees from 11 factories in England and Wales engaged in the manufacture of flexible polyurethane foam was investigated.
All employees were employed for at least six months during the 1958-79 period, and for some time they were employed.
Indirect normalization and Poisson regression were used.
Results: compared with the general population in England and Wales, the mortality rate of lung cancer among female employees increased significantly (observed (Obs)35, expected (Exp)19.
4. standardized mortality rate (SMR)181).
No similar excess was found by male employees (
Exp 134, Exp 125. 0, SMR 107).
Cause-Specific SMRs with no significant increase in sub-cohort (n = 1782)
Isocyanate has been exposed to employment for some time.
No significant positive trends were found between lung cancer risk and non-lung cancer risk
Malignant Diseases of the respiratory system, as well as the \"low\" or \"high\" Duration exposed to diocyanate.
Conclusion: This study was not able to correlate the employment exposure of isocyanate acid salts with lung cancer risk or non-lung cancer risk
Evil diseases of the respiratory system
The increase in SMR in female lung cancer is likely to be caused by factors unrelated to the research industry.
Methods the cohort, data collection procedures and the use of ocyan salt in the UK Flexible Polyurethane Foam Industry 1;
The team includes 8288 male and female production staff from 11 participating factories in England and Wales.
The definition of the queue is complex, although all subjects have some work during the 1958-79 period and have been employed for at least six months.
The queue is a mixture of the entry queue (n = 5321)
And the census group (
Survivors)(n = 2967);
The latter includes the earliest employed workers who still have complete personnel records.
Different factories have different dates;
Table 1 summarizes the factory sub-groups.
View this table: View the definition and work history data summary of the inline View pop-up table 1 factory group (ONS)
Continue to provide a copy of the death certificate to the chief investigator (
The root cause of the Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9))
Details of cancer registration (
For more limited periods 1971-94)
, And immigration details related to the research topic.
Deadline for investigation (
December 31, 1998)
There are 1704 (20. 6%)
The deceased, 163 (2. 0%)
Workers have migrated, 146 (1. 8%)
No workers were found.
Average follow-up period (
Employment date as of the end of the research period)was 26. 3 years.
As of the end of 1986, a total of 1436 research subjects were still working, of which 241 employees were employed in the two factories now closed.
The work records of the 241 employees remained unchanged.
The company\'s personnel department provided the remaining 1987 employees with the latest work records for the period 1195-97.
The additional work history is coded according to the work dictionary containing 4612 unique factory/department/work entries used in the early analysis.
1 guided by occupational health data (1978–86)
All of these entries collected for the Medical Research Council isocyanate Study 6 were classified as one of the four headings.
A total of 189 entries were classified by one occupational health worker as \"higher\" contact work (
Weighted average exposure in 8 hours (TWA)
For trips where TDI is greater than 4 ppb or more than 10 ppb, it is happening most of the time)
, 701 entries are classified as \"low\" exposure work (
TDI is 1 for 8 hours.
5-4 ppb or occasional excursions above 5 ppb)
94 entries could not be categorized and the remaining 3628 entries were classified as work involving minimum/zero exposure.
The exposure work of \"higher\" includes block factory operators, polyester molding process workers and curing charging workers;
Exposure work for \"lower\" includes block store controllers and maintenance fitters;
Minimum/zero contact work including sewing mechanic, pillow filler, shop assistant and latex worker.
The current ACGIH eight-hour TLV exposed by TDI is 5 ppb;
Level of short-term exposure (STEL)is 20 ppb.
External standards (SMR)
The expected death toll is calculated by applying the gender, age and period-specific mortality rates in England and Wales to the corresponding person --years-at-risk (pyr).
Each study subject provides pyr from the end of the minimum employment period of six months or from the date of the factory census (see table 1)
Whichever is later, until the end date of the study, the date of death, immigration or last known to be alive, whichever is the earliest.
SMRs is calculated as a percentage of the observed death to the expected death.
These procedures are carried out using the personal year programme.
The 85-year-old data was reviewed for three reasons.
First, the published mortality rate is only applicable to the \"open\" age group ≥ 85, and the distribution of pyr queues by single age may be significantly different from that of the general population;
Secondly, the reliability of the details of the cause of death may be poor in the future;
Third, at the end of the study, any study object incorrectly classified as alive tracking would have a disproportional effect on the expected number of non-age groups.
A total of 200 262 pyr is available for updated analysis (
1951-88: 93 983 pyr for men and 41 679 pyr for women;
1989-98: 44 578 pyr for men, 20 022 pyr for women).
All statistical significance tests were double tails.
Number of variables considered likely to affect mortality in the queue: gender, age, calendar period, queue type (
Enter the queue/census queue)
, From the time of commencement of employment, the cumulative duration of \"higher\" exposure to DIIS acid salts and the cumulative duration of \"lower\" exposure to diocyan acid salts.
Each variable is divided into multiple levels (see table 2).
The final model is built like this, with at least one death observed at each level of each variable.
Any adjustments were made before statistical modeling was performed.
View this table: View the inline View pop-up table 2 deaths and people-years-at-
Risk EPICURE computer program for covariates level is used to provide pyr and death numbers for all levels combinations of selected variables, 8 and statistical modeling by Poisson regression, 9 point estimation for calculating rate ratios (relative risks)
For working history variable categories with or without other variable adjustments.
More importantly, the statistical significance of any trend in which risk is gradually increased or decreased over the cumulative duration of exposure employment is assessed by the linear weighted p-value of the trend;
Three levels for each of the two work history variables (see table 2)
Results external standard Table 3 shows observations and expected deaths in individual sites of cancer and in large categories of non-cancer patients
Cancer deaths for male and female employees.
SMRs increased significantly in men for all reasons (
Obs 1298, SMR 107, p